C definitions - Building Terms Dictionary



C definitions - Do you know architectual drafting or building terms starting with the letter "C"?

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Caisson:
A cylindrical sitecast concrete foundation unit that penetrates through unsatisfactory soil to reset upon an underlying stratum of rock or statifactory soil; an enclosure that permits excavation work to be carried out underwater.

Calcining:
The drying off of the water of hydration from gypsum by the application of heat.

Camber:
A slight, intentional initial curvature in a beam or slab.

Cambium:
The thin layer beneath the bark of the tree that manufactures cells of wood or bark.
Cantilever:
A beam, truss, or slab that extends beyond its last point of support.

Cant Strip:
A strip of material with a sloping face used to ease th transition from a horizontal to a vertical surface at the edge of a membrane roof.

Capillary Action:
The pullinf of water through a small orifice or fibrous material by the adhesive force between the water and the material.

Capillary Break:
A slot or groove intended to create an opening too large to be bridged by a drop of water, and thereby to prevent the passage of water by capillary action.

Carbide-tipped Tools:
Drill bits, saws, and other tools with cutting edges made of an extremely hard alloy.

Carbon Steel:
Low-carbon or mild steel.

Carpenter:
One who makes things of wood.

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Casement Window:
A window that pivots on an axis at or never a vertical edge of the sash.

Casing:
The wood finish pieces surrounding the frame of a window or door; a cylindrical steel tube used to line a drilled or driven hole in foundation work.

Castellated Beam:
A steel wide-flange section whose web has been cut along a zigzag path and reassembled by welding in such a way as to create a deeper section.

Casting:
Pouring a liquid material or slurry into a mold whose form it wll take as it solidifies.

Casting Bed:
A permanent, fixed form in which precast concrete elements are produced.

Cast-in-place:
Concrete that is poured in its final location; sitecast.

Cast Iron:
Iron with too high a carbon content to be classified as steel.

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Caulk:
A low-range sealant.

Cavity Wall:
A masonry wall that includes a continuous airspace between its outermost wythe and the remainder of the wall.

Cee:
A metal framing member whose cross-sectional shape resembles the letter C.

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Ceiling Attenuation Class (C.A.C):
An index of the ability of a ceiling construction to obstuct the passage of sound between adjacent rooms.

Cellular Decking:
Panels made of steel sheets corrugated and welded together in such a way that hollow longitudinal cells are created within the panels.

Cellular Raceway:
A rectangular tube cast into a concrete floor slab for the purpose of housing electrical and communications wiring.

Cellulose:
A complex polymeric carbohydrae of which the structural fibers in wood are composed.

Celsius:
A temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is established as 0 and the boiling point as 100 degrees.

Cement:
A substance usd to adhere material together; in concrete work; the dry powder that, when it has combined chemically with the water in the mix, cements the particles of aggregate together to form concrete.

Cementitious:
Having cementing properies, usually with reference to inorganic substances, such as portland cement and lime.

Centering:
Temporary formwork for an arch, dome, or vault.

Centering Shims:
Small blocks of synthetic rubber or plastic used to hold a sheet of glass in the centre of its frame.

Ceramic Tile:
Small, flat, thin clay tiles intended for use as wall and floor facings.

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Chair:
A device used to support reinforcing bars.

Chamfer:
A flattening of a longitudinal edge of a solid member n a plane that lies at an angle of 45 degrees to the adjoining planes.

Channel:
A steel or aluminum section shaped like a rectangular box with one side missing.

Chlorinated Polyethylene:
A plastic material used in roof membranes.

Chorosulfonated Polyethylene:
A plstic material used in roof membranes.

Chord:
A top or bottom member of a truss.

C-H Stud:
A steel wall framing member whose profile resembles a combination of letter C and H, used to support gypsum panels in shaft walls.

Chuck:
A device for holding a steel wire, rod, or cable securely in place by means of steel wedges in a tapering cylinder.

Churn Drill:
A steel tool used with an up-and-down motion to cut through rock at the bottom of a steel pipe caisson.

Cladding:
A material used as the exterior wall enclosure of a building.

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Clamp:
A tool for holding two pieces of material together temporarily; unfired bricks piled in such a way that they can be fired without using a kiln.

Class A,B,C Roofing:
Roof covering materials classified according to their resistance to fire when tested in accordance with ASTM E108. Class A is the highest, and Class C is the lowest.

Cleanout Hole:
An opening at the base of a masonry wall through which mortar droppings and otherdebris can be removed prior to grouting the interior cavity of the wall.

Clear Dimension, Clear Opening:
The dimension between opposing inside faces of an opening.

Climbing Crane:
A heavy-duty lifting machine that raises itself as the building rises.

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Clinker:
A fused mass that is an intermediate product of cement manufacture; a brick that is overburned.

Closer:
The last masonry unit laid in a course, a partial masonry unit used at the corner of a header course to adjust the joint spacing ; a mechanical device used for regulating the closing action of a door.

Cohesive Soil:
A soil such as clay whose particles are able to adhere to one another by means cohesive and adhesive forces.

Cold-formed Steel construction:
Steel framing composed of members that were created by folding sheet steel at room temperature.

Cold-rolled Steel:
Steel rolled to its final form at a temperature at which it is no longer plastic.

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Cold-worked Steel:
Steel formed at a temperature at which it is no longer plastic, as by rolling or forging at room temperaure.

Collar Joint:
The vertical mortar joint between wythes of masonry.

Collar Tie:
A peice of wood nailed across two oppposing rafters near the ridge to resist wind uplift.

Column:
An upright structural member acting primarily in compression.

Column Cage:
An assembly of vertical reinforcing bars and ties for a concrete column.

Column-cover-and spandrel System:
A system of cladding in which panels of material cover the columns and spandrels with horizontal strips of windows filling the remaining portion of the wall.

Column Spiral:
A continuous coil of steel reinforcing used to tie a concrete column.

Column Tie:
A single loop of steel bar, usually bent into a rectangular configuration used to prevent spreading of the vertical bars in a concrete column.

Combination Door:
A door with interchangeable inserts of glass and insect screening, usually used as a second, exterior door and mounted in the same opening with a conventional door.

Combination window:
A sash that holds both insect screening and a retractable sheet of glass, mounted in the same frame with a window and used to increase its thermal resistance.

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Common Bolt:
An ordinary carbon steel bolt.

Common Bond:
Brickwork laid with each five courses of stretches followed by one course of headers.

Composite:
A material or assembly made up of two or more materials bonded togetherto act as a single structural unit.

Composite Column:
An upright structural member, acting primarily in compression that is composed of concrete and steel structural shape, usually a wide-flange or a tube.

Composite construction:
Any element in which concrete and steel, other that reinforcing bars, work as a single structural unit.

Composite Metal Decking:
Corrugated steel decking manufactured in such a way that it bonds securely to the concrete floor fill to form a reinforced concrete deck.

Composite Wall:
A masonry wall that incorporates two or more different types of masonry units, such as clay bricks and concrete blocks.

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Compression:
A squeezing force.

Compression Gasket:
A synthetic rubber strip that seals around a sheet of glass or a wall panel by being squeezed tightly against it.

Compressive Strength:
The ability of a structural material to withstand squeezing forces.

Concave Joint:
A motar joint tooled into a curved, indented profile.

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Concealed Grid:
A suspended ceiling framework that is completely hidden by the tiles or panels it supports.

Concrete:
A stuctural material produced by mixing predetermined amounts of portland cement, aggregates, and water, and allowing this mixture to cure under controlled conditions.

Concrete Block:
A concrete masonry unit, usually hollow, that is larger than a brick.

Concrete Masonrt Unit (CMU):
A block of hardened concrete with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone, a concrete block.

Condensate:
Water formed as a result of condensaion.

Condensation:
The process of changing from gaseous to a liquid state, especially as applied to water.

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Conduit:
A steel or plastic tube through which electrical wiring is run.

Continuous Ridge Vent:
A screened, water-shielded ventilation opening that run continuously along the ridge of a gable roof.

Contractor:
A person or organization that undertakes a legal obligation to do construction work.

Control Joint:
An intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weaknesswhere cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure.

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Controlled Low-strength Material (CLSM):
A concrete that is purposely formulated to have a very low but known strength, used primarily as a backfill material.

Convector:
A heat exchange device that uses the heat in steam, hot water, or an electric resistance element to warm the air in a room; often called, inaccurately, a RADIATOR.

Cope:
The removal of a portion of the flange at the end of a steel beam in order to facilitate connection to another member.

Coped Connection:
A joint in which the end of one member is cut to match the profile of the other member.

Coping:
A protective cap on the top of a masonry wall.

Coping saw:
A handsaw with a thin,very narrow blade, used for cutting detailed shapes in the ends of wood moldings and trim.

Copolymer:
A large molecule composed of repeating patterns of two or more chemical units.

Corbel:
A spanning device in which masonry units in successive courses are cantilevered slightly over one another, a projecting bracket of masonry or concrete.

Coreboard:
A thick gypsum panel used primarily in shaft walls.

Corner bead:
A metal or plastic strip used to form a neat, durable edge at an outside corner of two walls of plaster or gypsum board.

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Cornice:
The exterior detail at the meeting of the wall and a roof overhang, a decorative molding at the intersection of a wall and a ceiling.

Corrosion:
Oxidation, such as rust.

Corrosion Inhabitor:
A concrete admixture intended to prevent oxidation of reinforcing bars. Corrugated: Pressed into a fluted or ribbed profile.

Counterflashng:
A flashing turned down from above to overlap another flashing up from below so as to shed water.

Course:
A hoizontal layer of masonry units one unit high;a horizontal line of shingles or siding.

Coursed:
Laid in courses with straight bed joints.

Cove base:
A flexible strip of plastic or synthetic rubber used to finish the junction between resilient flooring and a wall.

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Crawlspace:
A space that is not tall enough to stand in, located beneath the lowest floor of a building.

Creep:
A permanent inelastic deformation in a material due to changes in the material caused by the prolonged application of a structural stress.

Cripple Stud:
A wood wall-framing member that is shorter than full-length studs because it is interrupted by a header or sill.

Cross-grain Wood:
Wood incorporated into a structure in such a way that its direction of grain is perpendicular to the direction of the principal loads on the structure.

Crosslot Bracing:
Horizontal compression members running from one side of an excavation to the other, used to support sheeting.

Crown Glass:
Glass sheet formed by spining an opened holow globe of heated glass.

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Cruck:
A framing member cut from a bent tree so as to form one-half of a rigid frame.

Cup:
A curl in the cross section of a board or timber caused by unegual shrinkage or expansion between one side of the board and the other.

Curing:
The hardening of concrete, plaster, gunnable sealant, or other wet materials. Curing can occur through evaporation of water or a solvent, hydration, polymerization, or chemical reactions of various other types, depending on the formulation of the material.

Curing Compound:
A liquid that, when sprayed on the surface of newly placed concrete, forms a water-resistant layer to prevent premature dehydration of the concrete.

Curtain Wall:
An exterior building wall that is supported entirely by the frame of the building, rather than being self-supporting or loadbearing.


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